• Ludewig, U., Alscher, P., Chen, X., and McElvany, N. (in press). What Makes Domain Knowledge Difficult? Word Usage Frequency From SUBTLEX and dlexDB Explains Knowledge Item Difficulty. Behavior Research Methods. DOI: 10.3758/s13428-022-01918-0

  • Bear, E., Bodnar, S., & Chen, X. (2023). Learner and linguistic factors in commercial ASR use for spoken language practice: A focus on form. In Proceedings of 9th Workshop on Speech and Language Technology in Education (SlaTE 2023), Dublin, Ireland. DOI: 10.21437/SLaTE.2023-31

  • Isbell, D., Kim, K., and Chen, X. (2023). Exploring the Potential of Commercial Speech-to-Text for Automated Scoring of the Korean Elicited Imitation Test. Research Methods in Applied Linguistics, 2(3). DOI: 10.1016/j.rmal.2023.10007 6 

  • Beukman, M. & Chen, X. (2023). Learner Perception of Pedagogical Agents. In Proceedings of 24th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED 2023, Late-breaking Track). DOI: 10.1007/978-3-031-36336-8_91 

  • Bear, E. & Chen, X. (2023). Evaluating a conversational agent for second language learning aligned with the school
    curriculum. In Proceedings of the Doctoral Consortium at the International Conference of Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED 2023). DOI: 10.1007/978-3-031-36336-8_22

  • Hui, B., Rudzewitz, B., & Meurers, D. (2023). Learning processes in interactive CALL systems: Linking automatic feedback, system logs, and learning outcomes. Language Learning & Technology, 27(1), 1–23. https://hdl.handle.net/10125/73527


  • Chen, X., Bear, E., Hui, B., Santhi-Ponnusamy, H., Meurers, D. (2022). Education Theories and AI Affordances: Design and Implementation of an Intelligent Computer Assisted Language Learning System. In Proceedings of Artificial Intelligence in Education 2022. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-031-11647-6_120

  • Chen, X., Meurers, D., and Rebuschat, P. (2022). Towards individually-adaptive input: Effects of complex input on the development of L2 writing complexity. Language Learning & Technology, 26(1): 1-21. DOI: 10125/73496

  • Cui, Y, Zhu, J, Yang, L., Fang, X., Chen, X., Wang, Y., & Yang, E. (2022). CTAP for Chinese:A Linguistic Complexity Feature Automatic Calculation Platform. In Proceedings of 13th Language Resources and Evaluation Conference (LREC). http://lrec-conf.org/proceedings/lrec2022/pdf/2022.lrec-1.592.pdf


  • Chen, X., Alexopoulou, T., & Tsimpli, I. (2021). Automatic extraction of subordinate clauses and its application in second language acquisition research. Behavior Research Methods, 53: 803-817. DOI: 10.3758/s13428-020-01456-7 

  • Weiss, Z., Chen, X., and Meurers, D. (2021). Using Broad Linguistic Complexity Modeling for Cross-Lingual Readability Assessment. In Proceedings of NLP4CALL Workshop. https://aclanthology.org/2021.nlp4call-1.4.pdf 


  • Ruiz S., Chen X., Rebuschat P., Meurers D. (2019). Measuring individual differences in cognitive abilities in the lab and on the web. PLOS ONE, 14(12): e0226217. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0226217

  • Chen, X., & Meurers, D. (2019). Linking text readability and learner proficiency using linguistic complexity feature vector distance. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 32(4), 418-447. DOI: 10.1080/09588221.2018.1527358.


  • Chen, X., & Meurers, D. (2018). Word frequency and readability: Predicting the text-level readability with a lexical-level attribute. Journal of Research in Reading, 41(3), 486-510. DOI: 10.1111/1467-9817.12121


  • Chen, X., & Meurers, D. (2017). Challenging learners in their individual zone of proximal development using pedagogic developmental benchmarks of syntactic complexity. In E. Volodina, I. Pilán, L, Borin, G, Grigonyte, & K, Björkenstam (Eds.), Proceedings of the Joint 6th Workshop on NLP for Computer Assisted Language Learning and 2nd Workshop on NLP for Research on Language Acquisition at NoDaLiDa 2017, Gothenburg, Sweden, 22 May (pp. 8-17). Linköpings: Linköping University Electronic Press. https://aclanthology.org/W17-0302.pdf


  • Chen, X., & Meurers, D. (2016). Characterizing text difficulty with word frequencies. In J. Tetreault, J. Burstein, C. Leacock, & H. Yannakoudakis (Eds.), Proceedings of The 11th Workshop on Innovative Use of NLP for Building Educational Applications (BEA) , San Diego, USA, 16 June (pp. 84-94). Association for Computational Linguistics. https://aclanthology.org/W16-0509/

  • Chen, X., & Meurers, D. (2016). CTAP: A Web-based tool supporting automatic complexity analysis. In D. Brunato, F. Dell'Orletta, G. Venturi, T. François, & P. Blache (Eds.), Proceedings of the Computational Linguistics for Linguistic Complexity Workshop at the 26th International Conference on Computational Linguistics (COLING 2016), Osaka, Japan, 11 December (pp. 113-119). The International Committee on Computational Linguisitcs. https://aclanthology.org/W16-4113/


  • Chen, X. (2013). Tablets for informal language learning: Student usage and attitudes. Language Learning & Technology, 17(1), 20-36. DOI: 10125/24503